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Dissertation writing: Dissertation Footnotes

The object of the footnotes

The arguments and opinions of others must be shown by citing the source in the so-called footnotes, even if they have not been reproduced verbatim (quotations). Normally, the view on the most important arguments should be just summarized mutatis mutandis (i.e., indirectly) be reproduced. In the footnotes, usually include only the evidence.

Factual considerations are either so important that they belong in the text or so unimportant that it can be omitted. In scientific papers, however, is not as strict as in term paper and seminar works are not as strict as elsewhere.References should be listed in official gazettes, etc. in the footnotes. The references in the footnotes can support only abstract ideas. Concrete case-specific ratings, especially if they relate to the facts, are only justifiable on literature and case law, if they were treated well there.


The footnotes should clearly indicate the manner in which they prove the statement text (e.g. “aA”, “summary”, etc.) – nothing is mentioned, this has the meaning of “well”. The term “see” indicates that the reference is only partially correct, but it remains unclear to what extent – it should therefore be avoided. The footnotes do not replace the tangible argument.”Blind Quotes”, i.e. places that have not reread are to refrain, then should rather be given less quotes. As evidence of a prevailing opinion is not enough, a single proof. Coming from whatever reason not to approach the original literature, the source is important, so it is exceptionally allowed to cite the source. This is to make clear, however, by specifying the source supplemented by the words “cited by …” and then cites the source from which one has the original quote.

Scope of the Dissertation

The seminar paper should have a circumference of about 15-20 pages have (facts, bibliography, outline not counted).Proposal for formatting: font: Arial, 1.5 line spacing, margin left 2 cm, right 5 cm, size 12 [Footnotes Arial 10, single-spaced].

An application for approval of the dissertation proposal

The student must submit an application for approval of the dissertation proposal, together with the commitment and support to the proposal of the dissertation agreement governing body responsible for study. The application must include a presentation of the dissertation, which specifies the objectives and methods, a timetable and a list of required resources and a reading list.

Condition for approval of the dissertation proposal is the faculty of public presentation of the dissertation project, which must be submitted in electronic form study program director or the study program director for publication on the website of the Department or in any other appropriate manner in writing. The / The study program director has to bring the presentation to the Doctoral Committee to note the possibility to make comments.

There is also the possibility that the approval of the dissertation proposal by the public presentation before the faculty when the dissertation takes place in the context of an already externally by international standards, positively evaluated research project. You need to show the ability to solve scientific problems independently; there may be a problem if one wants to choose a topic that was being processed. Of course, you will be able to refute this suspicion is difficult when a very similar thesis was easily available (e.g. in the library).

It is therefore highly recommended to perform a similarity search even before the application of the dissertation.For the choice of topics in the strict sense, the “reading” is recommended in the particular subject via comments. There is no list of “available” issues, so the search themes each student is left to itself. You have a suggestion for a topic (or rather several).

Dissertation agreement

This will be completed between a supervisor and the student, with the approval of the study program director or program director of the study.

The dissertation agreement contains the following points:

• The name of the / of the student, student number, date of birth
• The names of the caregivers
• The dissertation topic
• The curriculum, based on which the study is completed
• The thesis area, which the dissertation is assigned
• A timetable for the dissertation project, if necessary, a financial planning

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Five Steps to Essay writing

In Anglo-American educational system, the essay plays a similar role as in any other country. It can be said that the essay plays the role of something like an attachment. Instead of strictly following the scheme “Introduction – Bulk – Final” to proceed, at the beginning of the essay there is something in the form of a “What if …“.

According to the essay is a creative game of possibilities. Something, for which can be uttered the words: it is the great school of creative, independent writing.

One of the characteristic of the essay is that it is trying to answer a new question. It is can be an already well-known or merely rhetorical question posed – it is also suitable for an interesting essay.

It can be noted that there is any formal distinction between the European and Anglo-American essay. The Anglo-American essay often is often academic, the other can be much usefully of the Anglo-American approach to learning, in which the essay writing is part of the scientific, creative writing. The essay should be not only well written, but readers should understand what thoughts the author. The process of essay writing can be summarized in five steps:

• The community a question
• Parking on a thesis.
• Write an introduction that includes your thesis
• Give three reasons for the truth of your thesis (main reasons and considerations supporting).
• Writing a conclusion

A small basic model for the essay as a form of preaching

Although this is not very elaborated, but sufficient as the basic model. You could call it “expressive oriented preaching”. Even the preacher but it should be about, not only to express unctuous, beautiful words, but also to be understood in its concerns.

Compaction and unfolding

The creative use of foreign texts is stretched generally between two poles: on the one hand, the text summarization, on the other hand, the text display. Both poles must form not opposites. Rather, they can mark the beginning and the ending points. First is necessary reduction of the amount of information of a text in the compression phase that prepares the process of appropriation of aspects of a topic in the development phase.