Dissertation writing: Dissertation Footnotes

The object of the footnotes

The arguments and opinions of others must be shown by citing the source in the so-called footnotes, even if they have not been reproduced verbatim (quotations). Normally, the view on the most important arguments should be just summarized mutatis mutandis (i.e., indirectly) be reproduced. In the footnotes, usually include only the evidence.

Factual considerations are either so important that they belong in the text or so unimportant that it can be omitted. In scientific papers, however, is not as strict as in term paper and seminar works are not as strict as elsewhere.References should be listed in official gazettes, etc. in the footnotes. The references in the footnotes can support only abstract ideas. Concrete case-specific ratings, especially if they relate to the facts, are only justifiable on literature and case law, if they were treated well there.


The footnotes should clearly indicate the manner in which they prove the statement text (e.g. “aA”, “summary”, etc.) – nothing is mentioned, this has the meaning of “well”. The term “see” indicates that the reference is only partially correct, but it remains unclear to what extent – it should therefore be avoided. The footnotes do not replace the tangible argument.”Blind Quotes”, i.e. places that have not reread are to refrain, then should rather be given less quotes. As evidence of a prevailing opinion is not enough, a single proof. Coming from whatever reason not to approach the original literature, the source is important, so it is exceptionally allowed to cite the source. This is to make clear, however, by specifying the source supplemented by the words “cited by …” and then cites the source from which one has the original quote.

Scope of the Dissertation

The seminar paper should have a circumference of about 15-20 pages have (facts, bibliography, outline not counted).Proposal for formatting: font: Arial, 1.5 line spacing, margin left 2 cm, right 5 cm, size 12 [Footnotes Arial 10, single-spaced].